Educational technology ,careers and future : November 2018

Friday, November 30, 2018

Hyper-Spectral Imaging Satellite (HysIS), Launch by ISRO

ISRO(Indian Space Research Organisation) launched India’s first Hyper-Spectral Imaging Satellite (HySIS), an advanced earth observation satellite and 30 foreign satellites on 29 Nov, 2018 at 9:58 am .PSLV C43 delivered India’s HySIS satellite into the polar sun synchronous orbit at an altitude of 630 Km. from earth taking 17 minutes and 27 seconds after the launch.

What is Hyper-Spectral Imaging Satellite (HysIS)?

Hyperspectral imaging collects and processes information from across the electromagnetic spectrum. The goal of hyperspectral imaging is to obtain the spectrum for each pixel in the image of a scene, with the purpose of finding objects, identifying materials, or detecting processes. Hyperspectral imaging measures contiguous spectral bands while human can see only visible spectral bands. Hyperspectral sensors look at objects using a vast portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Certain objects leave unique 'fingerprints' in the electromagnetic spectrum. Known as spectral signatures, these 'fingerprints' enable identification of the materials that make up a scanned object.

Hyperspectral sensors collect information as a set of 'images'. Each image represents a narrow wavelength range of the electromagnetic spectrum, also known as a spectral band. These 'images' are combined to form a three-dimensional hyperspectral data cubes for processing and analysis.

Hyperspectral payload of HySIS satellite is a hyperspectral imaging sensor operating in the visible and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This earth observing imaging spectrometer will operate in the 0.4 to 0.95┬Ám spectral range, will have 55 spectral bands with 10 nanometre spectral sampling and 30 metre spatial sampling. Push-broom scanning mode is the operating mode of this sensor from a 630 km orbit.

Why India is going to be investment Hub for advance technologies?

What is the importance For India?

Recently China launched their Hyperspectral imaging satellite with main focus on monitoring of air pollution. Having first HySIs satellite India has achieved capacity of monitoring of its oil fields, crops, forests,  pattern of air pollution etc..

According to an EO expert who called it the ‘CATSCAN’ equivalent of the Earth from space.

 ISRO is setting up new milestones with every new launch , after this launch India has been included in the list of the few countries with Hyper-Spectral Imaging satellites.

Wednesday, November 28, 2018

Deputy Engineer Recruitment by BEL for Electronics Engineers


BEL is a Government owned aerospace and defence company ith about nine factories and several regional offices across India.Is among one of the nine PSU’s working under Ministry of Defence of India, and possess “Navratna” status.

 BEL designs , develops and manufactures range of products for Air Force , Navy, and Indian Army .BEL  also supplies its products outside India and has a very good reputation .

Current Openings at BEL

BEL has issued notification for the recruitment of Deputy Engineer (E-II Grade) on Fixed Tenure basis of 5 years

Who can Apply:

Electronics Engineers with TWO YEARS industrial experience, in the area of Product Support / Customer Support / Production / Testing / and QA etc, at the following locations
Designation and Grade
No of Posts
Deputy Engineers (E-II Grade) Fixed Tenure Basis for a period of 5 year
BE/B.Tech or equivalent in Electronics and Communication
UR – 05 OBC – 04 SC – 03 ST – 03
Port Blair


GEN / OBC candidates with first class in B.E / B. Tech Engineering Graduate from AICTE approved Colleges in Electronics / Electronics and Communication / Electronics & Telecommunication / Communication / Telecommunication Engineering. Candidates with first class in AMIE / AMIETE, in the above disciplines are also eligible to apply. SC/ST/PWD candidates with pass class in the above degree / disciplines are eligible to apply.

Pay Scale

Candidates selected against the above position, will be placed in E-II grade, at the minimum of the pay scale of Rs.40000-3%-140000/. In addition, they will be entitled to Dearness Allowance, House Rent Allowance, 35% of the Basic Pay as Perquisites, Performance Related Pay (PRP), Group Insurance, Medical facilities and Provident Fund as per the Company's rules will be part of the remuneration package. Approx CTC is 9.5 Lakhs p.a.

Upper Age Limit

The maximum age limit for General candidates will be 27 years as on 01.12.2018. Upper age limit is relaxable by 5 years for SC/ST candidates and 3 years for OBC candidates. In respect of PWD candidates upper age limit is relaxable by 10 years. In respect of PWD candidates belonging to SC/ST/OBC category, the age relaxation admissible will be in addition to the relaxation admissible for candidates belonging to SC/ST/OBC.

Detail Notification is available at the official website of BEL under career section.

Selection Procedure

Candidates will be shortlisted on the basis of Interview.


Online application starts from 21-11-2018 to 5-12-218

Who Should apply?

As per the notification this vacancy is for fixed tenure of 5 years , so candidate who working in a company where they are not having good career progression should definitely apply. BEL is very good company with vast scope of learning in the field of electronics as it works on advance technologies pertaining to defense and aerospace .Thus working at BEL will definitely give the candidate a very good exposure to new technologies. As India has opened its doors for Foreign Direct investment in Defence sector in future you may get very good opportunity in any of the MNC working in defence sector. For those candidates already having good opportunity right now leaving their job to join BEL will not be recommended looking at the fixed tenure of 5 years.

4G in India and Latest technologies associated

What is 4G and How it provide High speed of Data

The first 4G cellular standard was proposed by NTT Docomo in 2004 .Long term evolution (LTE) which is also called as 4G is based on MIMO-OFDM and continues to be developed by the 3rd Generation partnership project(3GPP) , which developed 3G earlier. LTE specifies downlink rates up to 300 Mbit/s, uplink rates up to 75 Mbit/s, and quality of service parameters such as low latency. LTE advanced adds support for picocells, femtocells, and multi-carrier channels up to 100 MHz wide. LTE has been embraced by both GSM/UMTS and CDMA operators.

The first LTE services were launched in Oslo and Stockholm by Telia Sonerain 2009.International Telecommunications Union-Radio communication sector(ITU-R) created a set of standards that networks must meet in orders to meet  the requirement of  true 4G called as International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced (IMT-Advanced) Communication.

4G Standards

4G uses IP packet switching and use OFMDA(Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access) multi carrier transmission methods or other frequency Domain Equalization(FDE).Th peak data rates must be 100Mbps on a mobile network and upto 1Gbps on local wireless network. 4G uses IPV6, thus providing large number of available IP addresses thus streamlining user experience.4 G technologies offers better handovers between different networks and better quality of services.

What is MIMO?

MIMO is multiple input multiple output. When signal are transmitted with single Antenna , considerable amount signal loss occurs due to interferences causing low speed and poor signal quality at the receiver end. MIMO refers to practical technique for sending and receiving more than one data signal simultaneously over the same radio channel by exploiting multipath propagation using Multiple antennas used at both the transmitting and receiving stations – which is at the heart of the current high speed 4G mobile systems .

LTE (4G) in India

Although 4G was launched by AIRTEL at Kolkata ,in India in 2012 the speed was not as much it was expected. With the launch of 4G by Reliance Jio in 2016 Indian mobile users experienced high speed data services. Since then all the major private operators 4G in India but Indian users couldn’t get the real 4G speed .Initially JIO has shown download speed upto 70 Mbps but slowly average speed has dropped upto 16 Mbps. With the rising customers speed has reduced to 2 Mbps in few areas.While IARTEL has considerably improved its data speeds and having more speed compared to RJIO.

 Recently AIRTEL started first round of deployment of state of the art MIMO technology in AIRTEL’s network in Bangalore and Kolkata and will expand to other parts of country.

Abhay Savargaonkar, Director – Networks, Bharti Airtel said, on September 26, 2017 “India is fast striding towards exponential and unprecedented data growth. Our latest deployment of Massive MIMO, will help us serve this demand and would also give an impetus to build a future ready network. The deployment gives us a strategic advantage to provide faster speeds and enhanced user experience for our customers, thereby translating into improved spectrum efficiency.”
Massive MIMO creates 3D beams both on horizontal and vertical planes towards users located within its coverage footprint. This helps in improving coverage and reducing interference across users in different beams, thereby improving signal quality (SNR) by 2-3dB. Serving multiple users by re-using same set of resource blocks (MU-MIMO) with improved signal quality helps in improving user experience, cell capacity and spectrum efficiency.

Source: Wikipedia, &

Monday, November 26, 2018

Why Minimum Monthly recharge to Continu Your Mobile services?

Telecom market in India is changing very rapidly , till few days ago nobody was worried about validity of his number except customer of BSNL , a public sector Enterprise. You buy a SIM and get lifetime validity , this is the way these telecom operators added such a huge number of Mobile customers .With the invent of dual SIM mobile phone most of the Indians were having two or more numbers, one for regular use and one for occasional use. With the entry of RJIO situation changed further, many  people used regular number  as an incoming number and RJIO for outgoing and DATA use.

Problem of Mobile operators(AIRTEL,VODAFONE, IDEA)

Before the entry of RJIO ,ARPU from customers was quite high nearly 200 Rs. as the data charges and call charges were high and interconnect charges were 14 paisa . Telecom operators were earning considerable amount from the customers who were using number for Just incoming only. But now scenario has completely changed. Unlimited calling plans have been launched due to the competition by RJIO at quite a low cost(Rs. 99 /28 days) , thus revenue for high calling users have already dropped and interconnect charges what operators get for an incoming call from other network has fallen to 6 paisa. The average revenue from customer using number only for incoming is  Rs 10 for six months and ARPU is falling by 4.7% quarterly. One  side expenditure of operators increasing due to investment in upgradation of network on the other hand revenue is declining.
  ARPU of Vodafone-idea has fallen to Rs. 88 while it is 101 for AIRTEL. RJIO is having highest ARPU of Rs.131.7 .

Steps taken by Operators to increase Revenue

 As the ARPU o the operators is falling 4.47% per quarter because of greater number of people using old number as incoming only, thus per user revenue from such customers is merely RS. 10 for six months by increasing revenue from these users operators trying to hold the decline of their revenue.
So AIRTEL ,IDEA and VODAFONE made, minimum recharge of Rs. 35 compulsory after every 28 days for every customer. In recharge of  Rs. 35 customers will get talk value of Rs. 26 for 28 days . Other than Rs. 35 , available recharge are Rs. 65 and Rs. 95 all offering validity for 28 days.

If customers fails to recharge  his after completion of his 30 days his outgoing calls will be stopped and in if no recharge done in next 15 days incoming facility of the customer will also be stopped .

Thus average revenue from such customers will be at least Rs. 35 per month for the operators .Total count of such customer’s is nearly 60 million, those  customers who failed to recharge their number will be closed permanently

Options Available for Customers

The only option available for the customers who do not want to spend minimum of Rs 35 for incoming services may port out there existing number to BSNL .BSNL offers six months validity on recharge of Rs. 36 with no balance,while recharge of Rs . 153 provides validity of one year and talk value of Rs. 100 & free PRBT for 28 days.

Telecom Regulatory authority of India ,TDSAT ,DOT and Telecom Disputes in India

History of TRAI

When Indian Telecom market was opened for Private companies  need arised of a regulatory authority to monitor fair play by all telecom operators and protection of consumer rights. With this idea TRAI(Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) was formed on 20 Feb, 1997 by Act of Parliament , called as Telecom Regulatory Authority of India , 1997.

The directions, orders and regulations issued cover a wide range of subjects including tariff, interconnection and quality of service as well as governance of the Authority.

India, The Fastest growing telecom market and Challenges


The TRAI Act was amended by an ordinance, effective from 24 January 2000, establishing a Telecommunications Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) to take over the adjudicatory and disputes functions from TRAI. TDSAT was set up to adjudicate any dispute between a licencor and a licensee, between two or more service providers, between a service provider and a group of consumers, and to hear and dispose of appeals against any direction, decision or order of TRAI.

  After formation of TDSAT , TRAI has powers of  a policy making and imposing penalty on policy violation .If any of the policy made by TRAI seems biased operators can go to TDSAT against decision of TRAI . 


Department of Telecommunications has a different role compared to TRAI and TDSAT . Main work of DOT is to issue licenses to the operators, selling of spectrum(frequency) for telecommunication and management in the field of radio communication in co-ordination with international bodies .

Controversies with TRAI

Although TRAI is a regulatory authority to give all operators fair play in telecom sector , but with the entry of RJIO few policy decisions of TRAI has been controversial and strongly opposed by other operators but couldn't get any relaxation.Few decision of TRAI caused controversy ,like-

1) Reduction in InterconnectChareges

From Oct 1, 2017 TRAI reduced interconnect charges from 14 paisa to 6 paisa. Interconnect charge is the charge what an operator need to pay to other operator for any call from its own  network which goes in others network. RJIO being a new entrant and unlimited free calls from its network was the biggest gainer of this decision. While old operators like AIRTEL,VODFONE, IDEA with major customer base were the sufferer due to sudden decline of revenue from interconnect charges.

2) Predatory Pricing

As per TRAI decision ,"A tariff will be considered predatory if in a “relevant market”, a telecom operator with over 30% market share offers services at a price which is below the average “variable cost”, with a view to reduce competition or eliminate the competitors in the “relevant market”.

This definition allows RJIO to offer low cost services while other players could not reduce their charges below certain level . AIRTEL and IDEA appealed against this decision of TRAI in TDSAT but couldn't get stay.

3 ) Free services by JIO

With the launch of RJIO on 5th September 2016 it offered free services for three months for its customers as "Welcome offer" then extended on December 1,  further till 31 March, 2017 as (Happy New year offer). AIRTEL, IDEA and VODAFONE appealed against extension of free services by  RJIO in TDSAT . But on 1 February,2017 , TDSAT ruled that Reliance Jio’s “welcome” and “happy new year” offers were non-discriminatory and non-predatory.

India , The fastest Growing Telecom Market and Challenges

India is still a developing country . Telecom sector in India grown slowly  till 2016 in terms of technology . Most of the telecom players were providing only GSM and 3G connectivity to its customers. Most of the operator were charging high while customers were not having too options in terms of pricing and service . But since the Launch 4G services by Reliance Jio nationwide ,India has seen rapid growth in terms of Data speeds .


Indian telecom market was opened for Private companies in 1998 but government arm DOT was the leading player providing wired line telecom service , which was opposed by private companies as will not give them fair chance  to compete in the market. In 1999 Indian Government decided to leave direct control of telecom services provided by DOT so new PSU was formed from DOT to provide telecom services . BSNL was only providing wired Line services while private companies tarted Mobile services but these service cost were too high . BSNL launched its mobile services in 2005  due to different initiative taken by BSNL like free incoming services , brought telecom services in reach of common man . After that with decreasing prices of mobile devices caused rapid growth in penetration of Telecom services. In 2010 , BSNL launched 3G service nationwide , slowly all operators started 3G services but still Data was not highly used by Indian customers due to high cost. Telecom operators need to take huge loans for paying 3G spectrum charges.


In 2016 auction of 4G spectrum took place . Government laid one condition ,  A company interested in buying spectrum in 700 MHz band will need to shell out a minimum of Rs.57,425 crore for a block of 5 MHz on a pan-India basis. This premium band alone has the potential to fetch bids worth over Rs.4 trillion.

 Existing operators were already burdened with heavy loans could not invest such a huge amount so they bought spectrum in 1800 and 2100 MHz band in selected circles. Thus RJIO became the only operator to posses nationwide 4G spectrum , this in turn gave RJIO an edge over other operators . 


As Reliance JIO was a new entrant in Telecom market and already have invested heavily in making robust 4G network in India , the main focus was to get large customer base. . Altough Airtel launched 4G mobile services in Feb 2014 in selected cities of India , first nationwide launch was done by RJIO in April 2016 and just to attract customers provided free 4G services for six months. Due to free service there was a rush to get RJIO SIM in India, people got their 4G SIM waiting in ques for hours . First time Indian customers experienced high Data speed of 4G .

 Although RJIO garnered good customer base ,with its free services but it was a setback for existing telecom operators as their revenue started dipping sharply, free service by RJIO was extended further by six months thus giving another blow to existing operators . As RJIO network was facing several issues in call setup and voice clarity , free services helped RJIO to retain all customers . Due to free services offered by RJIO data usage in India touched record high , and youngsters got addicted to various data service .RJIO range of services on its 4G network, JIO TV, JIO music, JIO money etc. After one year RJIO started charging for its services. In one year all telecom operators were under financial stress and forced to strengthen their network ,reduce voice and data charges.

RJIO added record 20 million customers in 3 years, while it took 10 to 15 years to other operators add that much customers.


Due to free services offered by RJIO revenue of all telecom operators, AIRTEL, VODAFONE, Reliance, Tata DOCOMO, UNINOR, AIRCEL, BSNL, MTNL fell drastically. Operators were not able to pay installments for their loans . Under severe financial stress many operators shut their business. AIRCEL, TATA DOCOMO, UNINOR, Reliance ore the operators closing their business . Infrastructure of Reliance owned by Anil Ambani bought by his elder brother Mukesh Ambani . Business of AIRCEL & TATA DOCOMO purchased by AIRTEL.  Due to closure of business by telecom operators huge number of people get unemployed working withn these companies directly or indirectly. Although customer is a winner of this cut throught competition but even Government is facing loss of revenue as operators are not able to pay spectrum related charge timely.

Since 2018 ARPU of operators has fallen from approx Rs. 180 to below Rs. 100. Even government owned PSU's, BSNL and MTNL are under severe financial stress .These two PSU's are still waiting for their 4G spectrum as  Government has not allotted them spectrum. Due to  lack of 4G spectrum their customer base and revenue is not increasing. 

Only 5 national telecom operators are left in India which will  further reduce to 4 from December 2018 due to merger of Vodafone and Idea. Due to merger of Vodafone and Idea , nearly 60,000 people working with these companies will loose their Jobs .

Total cumulative debt on Telecom operators has reached whopping 7.7 Lakh crore rupees . Although operators like AIRCEL, Reliance, TATA etc. closed their telecom business ,still struggling to pay their pending dues .


Since 2014 government of India is working towards Digital India Initiative Although 4G has helped for inclusion of Indian citizens in Digital India initiative, Rural India still lack reach of High speed Data. To fill this gap Government of India launched an Initiative of NOFN(National optical fiber network) to connect 2,50,000 village Gram Panchayats with optical fiber. BBNL, BSNL are playing crucial role to implement this project, this project is yet not completed .Still total data consumption has already crossed 2360 petabytes , with average consumption per user in 4G ,reaching 30 GB/month  per user in till September 2018, with year on year increase of 144 %.

5G in India

Facing huge competition in 4G all telecom operators are working towards further upgrade of their network . AIRTEL, VODAFONE , JIO all three major operators has given indication of early launch of 5G if spectrum is allotted. Government PSU , BSNL although could not get 4G spectrum but working towards launch of 5G with all other operators and have already done MOU with NOKIA and ZTE for necessary network planning . 

  Government of India has to work towards easing financial stress on telecom operators so that they can repay their debts and spectrum charges . If financial condition of the operators further deteriorates , it will further increase unemployment as well as affect further network upgrade of the operators.

Friday, November 23, 2018

Things to do during Engineering for better career

While you are doing your Engineering there are lot of things to do , many students think that they will prepare for Jobs in third year or Final year . It is to keep in mind that lakhs of Engineers are coming every year with degree but there is shortage of quality Jobs in India. To get one you have to beat the competition .Let us see the options available for  Engineering Graduate after completing Engineering Degree:

1.    Best option is to get on campus placement in company of your core branch if you get an opportunity or IT sector if possible.

2.    Qualify GATE exam with good score and be get shortlisted in any of the Government and public sector Jobs.

3.    Pursue Higher Education for which you require Good GATE score for MTech , CAT/GMAT score for MBA, GRE and IELTS for MS from Foreign University.

4.    Qualify exams of State PSC ,SSC and other state government exams.

5.    Qualify IES(Engineering Services) for selection in railways, DOT etc. government departments.

6.    Clear Exams of Bank PO or Specialist officer in Banks to get Banking sector jobs.

7.    Last option is to look for off campus selection for which you have to go to Bangalore or other big cities to appear for exams conducted by various companies from time to time.

   From the above options nobody would want to go for last option ,searching of Job. Because in off campus also various things other than your knowledge plays significant role. Private companies recruits most of the time on the basis of referrals when vacancy is less. For referrals you need to have good contacts with your college seniors so that they can refer you in their companies. 

Then What Should You Do ?

It is always better to start early ,during you Engineering:

1)    It’s is always better to get good technical knowledge whatever your branch is so that you could perform well in GATE examination because it will open two options for you government/public sector Jobs and Higher Education.

2)    If you want to  go for MBA then start working on your English, Aptitude , English speaking etc. so that you can perform well in CAT/GMAT examinations.

3)     Always work on your communication skills, participate in extra- curricular activities, try to get as much exposure you can get because it will help everywhere.

4)    If you want to go in Non-Engineering fields like Civil Services exams, Banking Sector Jobs etc it is  better to start early as there is huge competition.

5)     If you want to go abroad for higher education then start preparing for GRE/IELTS , and enquire about the expected expenditure , source of scholarships, good universities etc.

It is better to prepare well in advance because after completing your degree it becomes very difficult to maintain your confidence with the passage of time if not get employed timely.

 Always Keep in mind ,”Rome Was Not Built in A  Day” similarly for good career you have  to work hard and work continuously .

Tuesday, November 20, 2018

Want to do PHD , directly after B.Tech

For doing PhD eligibilty is Pot Graduation , but wait are you an Engineering Graduate(B.E/B.Tech) , then you need not have Masters degree to be eligible for PhD. Yes, you hear it right, there are two main options available for Engineering Graduates for Doing PhD directly after Engineering-

1. Dual degree MTech+ PhD through Gate examination.

2. Directly apply for PhD .

    First option of Dual degree was available there for few years now, but second one is new one. Now let us know the selection criteria and other details in both the options mentioned above.

1. Dual Degree(MTech+PHD)

 Most of the IIT's and few NIT's are offering dual degree in various disciplines .Course duration is 3 to 7 years . Although it is very difficult to complete PhD within 3 years because of the thesis work is related with PhD. Average duration which student varies from 5 to 7 years.

selection procedure

Selection procedure varies from college to college. Valid Gate score  is a must , written exam may or may not be conducted by the college depending on the number of candidates , Interview is conducted by Every college. In few colleges minimum 60 % marks in Engineering is required and Somewhere 70% or CPI of 7 to 8 is required.

Financial Assistance or Fellowship 

During first two years fellowship of 8000 to 16000 Rs.  provided depending on the college and 10000 to 25000 Rs. for 3rd to 5th Year. No Fellowship is  be provided beyond 5 years.

Students receiving assistantships from the Institute or fellowships from any funding other agencies , 
are  required to perform academic duties as per prevailing norms.

The continuation of the assistantship/fellowship is subject to satisfactory performance of the assigned duties and satisfactory progress of the student in the Dual (MTech +PhD) degree programme.

2. PhD After B.Tech(Start-early Ph.D. fellowship)

This is a new initiative launched by IIT Gandhinagar for providing Engineering graduates chance of Doing PhD without doing MTech or ME .The objective of this programme is to put promising young undergraduate students from diverse disciplines on the fast-track mode of cutting edge technological research in order to prepare them to participate in the process of nation building .

Selection procedure

As per Notification no Gate score is  required . Candidate selection is based on the  academic performance and Interview . Written examination may be there.


  • Rs. 35,000/- per month (with valid GATE score)
  • Rs. 25,000/- per month (without GATE score)

Benefits of PhD over MTech

If you are thinking about doing PhD then definitely you must be a patient worker and interest in research work . Because after doing B.Tech most of the students want to get Job and earn, while few want have masters degree before starting there career . But to wait for another 4 to 5 years for after doing B.Tech you need to really hard working.

While going for PhD directly one get expect good college with comparatively low GATE score as most of the candidates with god GATE score prefers MTech over PhD. 

If you are having plan to do PhD in near future then direct PhD will definitely save few years.

Career progression after PhD is far better compared to B.Tech and M.Tech candidates. 

There is better opportunity in Education field after PhD as students doing PhD are more keen to learn and teach.

These two options are available for most of the Engineering Branches but if you want to do  Ph.D / Integrated Ph.D Programme in Physics or Theoretical Computer Science or Neuroscience or Computational Biology the you can also apply for JEST.

What Is JEST?

JEST is Joint Entrance Screening Test.Applicants who are expected to complete their final examinations by August of each year are also eligible to appear for the JEST exam of that year.The Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB) (statutory body established through an Act of Parliament) recognizes JEST as a National Eligibility Test (NET) in their office Memo vide OM No.SB/S9/Z-01/2015.  Fellows working in SERB programmes and qualified in NET are eligible to get enhanced fellowship.

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