Educational technology ,careers and future : 2019

Sunday, May 12, 2019

Why USA and European countries paying ISRO for satellite launch

In recent years ISRO has increased its satellite launches not only number of launches but number of satellite in single launch, also increased  by ISRO . It is a matter of great pride that Indian space agency has  mastered in low cost satellite launch .  Capability of launching multiple satellites by single rocket has created business opportunities for ISRO . Number of foreign countries are sending their satellites in space with the help of ISRO . Not only small countries like Kazakhstan & Indonesia  but also developed countries like USA, UK, Germany etc. are also hiring ISRO for satellite launch.

logo of ISRO


Commercial launches of satellites for foreign nations are negotiated through commercial arm of ISRO that is ANTRIX. Till october 2018 ISRO has launched 249 satellites of 28 foreign countries.Between 2013 and 2015, India launched 28 foreign satellites for nine different countries earning a total revenue of US$101 million.

Why innovation is new fuel for prosperity of Indian economy

On 15 Feb 2017 ISRO successfully launched 103 satellites by single rocket . Out of 103 only 3 satellites were of India , remaining were foreign satellites .  While whopping 96 satellites were of USA while the others come from Israel, the UAE, Kazakhstan, the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. By this launch ISRO created history by launching maximum number of satellites with a single launch .The previous record was held by Russia's Dnepr launcher which launched 37 in June 2014 .All of foreign satellites were launched by ISRO by PSLV(Polar Satellite launch vehicle) rocket


No doubt that Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has progressed significantly in space technology . But USA is already a space superpower and launched various space missions like on MARS ,  JUPITER etc. still it is taking ISRO's help to launch its satellites.There must be some solid reasons for that .What are these reasons.


It is acknowledged by whole world that ISRO is capable in low cost satellite launch . By hiring ISRO for satellite launch these countries are saving a lot of money to be spend on Rockets for satellite launch also they are avoiding the risk of loosig costly rockets in case of technical failure. 


 Chandrayan -I, launched on 22 October 2008 aboard a PSLV-XL rocket, was a big success for ISRO as the Moon Impact Probe, a payload on board the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, discovered water on the Moon. Apart from discovering water the Chandrayaan-1 mission performed several other tasks such as mapping and atmospheric profiling of the Moon.

The estimated cost of the mission was only 368 crore rupees which is much cheaper than many hollywood films.


This is a major concern for the countries in the coming years . thousand of satellites has been in the space by various countries which are rotating in the various orbits like , Lower earth orbit, Geostationary earth orbit etc. With the increasing number of satellites there is a risk of collision of satellites in space or damage from satellite debris entering in the atmosphere. To take note of these risk  Space liability convention has been  adopted by International Space Agencies. As per the convention the country launching satellite for any damage on earth or flight the the debris of the satellite . While utmost care is taken in selection of orbit of every satellite , risk arises after the useful life or failure of satellite when it can't be controlled from earth. In such case there chances of damage from the debris created by satellite in space and on earth a well. While most of the space debris burns while entering into atmosphere , still chances are there to cause some damage.
Thus by launching huge number of satellites for foreign countries ISRO has taken the added responsibility of compensation in case of any damage from these satellites.

ISRO is likely to launch "Chandrayaan -II" coming few months when it will try to land payloads on pole of moon which is not done by any other country . Hope ISRO will create yet another milestone with Chandrayaan -II. The estimated cost of the mission is just Rs . 800 crores .

Thursday, April 4, 2019

Data is new blood but don't let it be a disease

Indian Telecom Industry has seen a drastic change in last three years. Data has become the main source of income for telecom Industry. Voice services are almost free with the monthly data .But as a common man what has changed in your life. Is it a natural change or a change brought with some motives , it is a big question. To understand this you need to look back and analyse how things has changed in past years.

In the year 2007 Google launched its open source operating system android and in  2008 first android mobile was launched when Nokia was dominating Indian market with its Symbian operating system .Slowly smartphones came into market and android became the primary OS in most of the smartphones.With the increasing android users Google started Google play store in competition to iPhone App store. Google started collecting user information from android database. New versions of android updated which required high memory space in mobile .Thus user were compelled to buy new devices.


Although people are too busy in social media entertainment platform like Facebook, Instagram, whats app ,LinkedIn,Tik-Tok  and Youtube. Very few are cautious about monitoring of user online activities and interests by these platforms. Marketing companies including google ,Facebook keeps track of viewing history of user and displays videos ,ads related to user interest . User after viewing ads of their interest may become a customer for companies giving ads. These companies are earning huge amount of money from the advertisers . People being addicted to these social media platform waste a lot of precious time ,and  money to pay for data charges and mobile devices.
While in India new records are being made for data usage by Indians .Everybody giving credits to RJIO for low data tariff war, which has enabled Indian users to access unlimited data and unlimited voice at throwaway prices. Although it is true that per GB data is very cheap now as compared to per GB data before 2016 , it is worth to note that telecom operators revenue from voice services has reduced considerably. To increase ARPU operators has to migrate users to data plans with unlimited calling .While monthly data charges are ranging from 149 to 190 Rs. still ARPU of most of the telecom operators is below Rs 100 except RJIO which is having mainly data user base.


 Unlimited data has compelled users to spend more time on their mobiles thus reducing physical communication among family members and friends . This in turn has affected very badly the emotional bonding in the society. A new trend of living virtual life on social media has evolved, causing dissatisfaction in personal life  as people has started to compare their life with the virtual life which is being displayed on social media.

Increased Cyber crime

Easy access to data and online banking and transactions has caused surge in cyber crimes. Cyber criminals easily access details of their targets on social media and use details to cause online frauds, blackmailing and other criminal activities.As per the reports incidents of cyber crimes has increased in India. “As per the information  tracked by Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), a total number of 44,679, 49,455, 50,362 and 53,081 cyber security incidents were recorded during the year 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. Which clearly indicates easy access of data in India is one of the reasons why cyber crimes has increased. This figure may increase rapidly in future as still data user base in India is below 50%.

Peer pressure and addiction to technology

young generations specially school going students are feeling great peer pressure due high end mobile devices and frequent change of technology. Students belonging to rich families display their costly mobile devices and its features  to their classmates , due to this other students demands same from their parents .Thus financial burden on parents has increased and they are more worried about the study of their children. Various instances has been reported in recent past where students taken extreme step of committing suicide when their parents failed to fulfill demand for costly smartphones.

Changing Technology ,Automation and Threat to Employment

With rising data usage telecom operators and Internet service provider has to upgrade their network and technology rapidly ,thus requiring huge investment .With the rising competition the only way to cut cost , these companies are reducing employees. Companies looking towards automation in coming days there may be severe shortage of employment. Which is really a serious concern for a large country with huge population like India.

While many experts argue that with the advancement of technology new opportunities will be their for future generations but when India is suffering to fulfill the current need of skilled people.How next generation will get the opportunities. It is really difficult for a country like India where still more than 50% population lives in villages with no proper employment, education and healthcare. There is no clear road map of the Government how it is going to meet the rising needs of employment with the growing population and automation.

After the launch of RJIO Indian telecom market destabilized causing closure of many small operators and now government is planning VRS of 30 % of employees from BSNL. All this happened in just a short span of time from 2016-17 to 2018-19. Now focus of all operators is on 5G , which will further boost automation in many fields . Future will decide if technology will bring prosperity or hardship for India.

Wednesday, March 20, 2019

Why BSNL is in the news Just ahead of Loksabha Election

Many of the Indian citizens think that there is no need of BSNL in the era of high speed data and uninterrupted services provided by Private Telecom operators. Everyone is writing about BSNL without any knowledge about the organisation, its functioning and limitations.

While many articles have been written about BSNL many of the them has created ire from the side of BSNL employees .

Recent few disputed articles are published on Before telling about firstpost let us take a look at the recent articles published on firstpost related to BSNL. Two articles published on 14h and 15th march for which links are given below:

 * In the first article although writer used the name of AIR INDIA and HAL for indicating loss making PSU's but center of the article is BSNL. Here writer clearly raise concerns over bailout package to BSNL by Government and suggested to dismantle it and sell citing the reasons of accumulated losses of approx 57600 crores.


While it is imperative to say that writer forget to mention the profits booked by the PSU to the tune of approx 44900 crore since 2001-2009. The article also undermines the huge employement provided by PSU (currently 1.73 lakhs ). Providing employment to its citizens is the responsibility of the government, predatory pricing by RJIO and silent support of government has already caused  many small Telecom operator to shut their business, leaving  employees on their fate.

Total employee strength of all existing private Telecom players collectively is not even 50% of BSNL. BSNL provides connectivity to far flung areas of leh laddakh, North eastern areas and naxalite areas where private operator failed to provide services. What about the social obligation of the government. When matter related to national security arises government can only rely upon BSNL and MTNL. As per the article government should earn money by selling huge assets of the PSU, but if earning of revenue would have  been the prime focus of government, there was no need to form BSNL and MTNL. These two companies were built to stabilize the telecom market and avoid monopoly of private players.

* Second article published on March 15 is even more controversial as it manipulates fake figures of customers for operators. As per TRAI report Vodafone - Idea is the largest operator with more than 41 crores customers, followed by AIRTEL 36 crore customers ,RJIO is third operator with 28 crore customers, and  BSNL is at 4th place with 11.7 crore customers. But as per writer of the article RJIO is market leader with 27 crore customers, while Vodafone-Idea and AIRTEL both have 10.13 crore customer, and BSNL is having just 2.03 crore customers. Why such fake figures were published on the website is a big question mark?

Then it came to know that first post is owned by network 18 media group. Which itself is the media company owned by Reliance industries of Shri Mukesh Ambani, owner of RJIO.

In place of  justifying honest reasons for opposing bailout package to BSNL author provided wrong figures.

What to worry About?

It is surprising see that lots of negative news are being published about BSNL and other PSU's just ahead of Loksabha Elections. The state owned telecom operator is waiting for 4G spectrum since 2017 which was being delayed at the end of DOT and Government but no political party tried  to question the  Government in two years for delay in the decision of the Governemnet, which earlier charged its predessors for not allowing the telco to compete with private operators by delaying equipment procurement and policy decisions.

While Prime minister announced from Red fort in 2015 that their Government brought BSNL out of  losses to operational profits,it is disheartening that he did not utter a single word on media news about possible closure or privatisation of the State owned Telecom operator . Although BSNL has started its 4G services in few circles and likely to launch nationwide on its 3G spectrum shutting 3G service, it can provide VoLTE services only after allotment of 4G spectrum. 

While many articles published about huge losses of BSNL and its survival, a detailed analysis of profits and losses since inception of Telecom opeartor has been published on the website

As per the article BSNL earned earned profit of Rs. 44990 crores from 2001-2009 and total accumulated losses from 2010-2018 is approx Rs 57878 crores. While total dues which is yet to come to BSNL is Rs. 54500 crores. Which results in net profit of Rs 41612 crore .

If we believe on these figures about BSNL then there is no need to create Hue and Cry . Still when elections are going on there are political reasons to highlight failure at the end of Government true or false. 

But the question is ,"Does India Need a Government owned telecom operator or not".

If we think as a common citizen we don't feel like it is required . But if we think about the importance of the Government organisation in telecom we will realise that in every situation of natural disaster , emergency situation Government can rely only its own organisation. As far as huge workforce of the Government organisation is concerned its the weakness as well as the strength . In any case of natural disaster BSNL restores its services ahead of all the private operators, only because of its huge workforce working in all corners of India.  

Source: &

Saturday, March 9, 2019

Why innovation is new fuel for prosperity of Indian economy

From thousands of years human has evolved with time. New inventions made by man adopted by others . From Industrial revolution to IT revolution has brought the prosperity in  nations taking the lead in innovations. 

Why India require PSU's

While Industrial revolution in England, Germany and France created their dominance in the world. 

During world war II Japan was one of the major power in the world but Atomic bomb explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki demolished its economy .What led Japan to retain its glory is the innovation in technology .Metro Train running in Japan although not the fastest in the world but is the safest and most punctual in the world. 

Why India is lagging in Innovation

While we expect our country to be center of innovation still we are importing major technology form Europe and other countries .If India really wants to prosper and become a developed country in coming years, we have to invest in research and development to encourage innovation. While going through list of country-wise expenditure on research and development we can easily understand where we stand in the world. While Israel spends 4.3 % ,South Korea spends 4.29%, Finland spends 3.17%, Sweden spends 3.16% ,Japan spends  3.14% of its GDP on R& D ,India just spends 0.85% of GDP on R&D. India stands at 44th place in the spending on R&D work.

This is the Gap India need to fulfill if we want bring in change in the country and reduce dependence on imports of technology. On the other hand we can say in future R&D and innovation will decide the economic prosperity of the our country .

Importance of R&D

Israel is great example to understand the importance of R&D and innovation for the growth of the nation. Israel once a small nation surrounded by Islamic countries and facing terrorism  having a troubled economy but with its  political will and transformation in technology now Israel is way ahead in Agriculture, technology, cyberspace ,defence , Infrastructure . Several  policies adopted by Narendra Modi Government are somewhat similar to the steps taken by Israel's Netanyahu Government. Promoting private sector , limiting Government sector and cutting Government spending , reducing bureaucracy involvement are the few steps which seems to be inspired from the  Israel's reforms. Although India doesn't spend too much on R&D but present Government has taken various Initiatives which may Improve R&D work in India. 

Artificial Intelligence and future with Artificial Intelligence

1.Make in India 

Make in India is an initiative to bring in major companies in India for production in India .Thus reducing India's dependence on Imports and bring new technology. While it will cut imports it will increase exports . India a attractive destination for investment due to low cost labour and huge young workforce. While many countries are struggling to find young workforce ,India is the youngest nation of the world.
Intiative of GOI to promote R&D and Business in India

2.Skill India

While India is having sufficient young workforce, biggest challenge is that India is not having sufficient skilled labour .To overcome this difficulty Government of India launched this scheme to make young Generation skilled by providing training in various fields.

to Provide skilled labour for Make In India Initiative

5G ,A Technological Advancement or threat to Environment

3.Start Up India

This is an Initiative to promote Entrepreneurship in the young Generation ,while earlier setting up business in India was quite difficult India has shown keen interest to streamline process to set new start Ups easily so that young Entrepreneurs which used to go abroad to start a business could start their business easily in India. Government of India set up a separate Start Up fund tom promote start ups in India.
Initiative by GOI to start new  Business

Although Indian Government not made very significant expenditure in R&D in these years .It has promoted R&D by taking Initiative of Make in India and Start Up India .Although in shorter term results are not visible but in longer run definitely it is going to effect economy and national development.

Ref: wikipedia &

Monday, February 18, 2019

Why India require PSU's

While India is progressing rapidly with the evolution of technology .Number of  companies are investing in India looking at huge customer base available in India . But the question is ,what is the significance of BSNL and other large PSU's working in India?

Why innovation is new fuel for prosperity of Indian economy


Answer is large PSU's like BSNL are very significant in context of India. As you are aware that India is a mixed economy where Public sector companies contributes to the economy along with the private companies. While private companies are rider for the new technological advancement ,they really fail to provide financial security to sufficient people. Financial security not only to its regular employees but to all the people working for the companies. There are various factors deciding importance of Public sector units in India.


Due to fierce competition in Every field ,cost saving is always a challenge for a company. When competition is to provide service and products at cheap rates first thing which a company targets to reduce expenditure is expenditure on HR . Now a days most of the companies are outsourcing major workforce .Only 10-20% strength of employees are hired as regular employee, rest are engaged on contract .This contractual workforce are engaged on very low cost compared to regular employees and becomes unemployed whenever demands goes down. 

While on the other hand PSU's has their sanctioned strength of employees which far more compared to private companies .It can be understood easily by comparing employee strength of BSNL ,with other private operators. BSNL employs around 175000 people, while total employee strength of Airtel , Vodafone, Idea and RJIO  combined is nearly 50000 less than 1/3 rd of BSNL . 


Although most of the Indians think that they doesn't require PSU's while there are number of private companies to provide quality products and services .But these PSU's plays very crucial role to fulfill social obligations  when all private companies fail to. 

You can go back to year 2008 when sudden surge was observed in crude oil prices ,crude oil price reached upto 94 $ per barrel due to losses , Reliance industries shut down all its petrol pumps nationwide to curb losses and only restarted after March 2016 when crude oil reached approx 41$ per barrel. Only Public sector Oil companies were there to give respite to common man from soaring oil prices.

Similarly in the time of natural disaster BSNL being a Public sector operator and huge workforce always remains at forefront to provide uninterrupted services which was already observed during cyclone in Andhra pradesh,Kerala Floods,kedarnath floods. BSNL provides services in non profitable areas covering  from Leh-Ladakh to Kanyakumari and upto far-flung areas of north east.


All public sector companies contributes to Indian economy upto great extent .That is one reason why India absorbs various shocks of worldwide recession.


This is very common question in the minds of every taxpayer that why tax paid by him is utilised for providing bail-out packages to PSU's to compensate for losses and question is genuine. But stopping bail-out to PSU's and let them die is not the solution. As it will not only create unemployment but also left Government with no options to fulfill its commitment towards social obligations in critical situations.

BSNL high speed FTTH Bharat Fiber(Internet)  launched to take on JIO Giga Fiber

  •  Rather  Government should  review  the  future of every PSU in next 20-30 years ,then only any action should be taken.There are various reasons for failure of any PSU which must be looked into for their revival.
  •  Although PSU's are established under companies act 1956 but they still function very much like Government organisation, what is the biggest hurdle for these PSU to earn profits. 
  • Decision making and implementation in PSU's is very slow. Due to corruption and malpractices at various levels, quality of service is very poor compared to private organisations.It can be understood by the fact that 4G is launched in India in 2016 but Government owned BSNL is still waiting for the spectrum for 4G after 3 yrs. while private companies are working on their network for 5G upgrade state owned telco is still not clear about its 4G spectrum ultimately affecting its business.
  • Recruitment by the PSU's are done in large numbers but they are really not bothered about upgrading employees with the changing technology and skills, thats why after some time efficiency of the employees degrades .

  • Accountability

Usually accountability is not fixed in many  PSU's. Higher authorities always try to avoid responsibility for any big decision . Whoever is assigned responsibility are deprived of sufficient powers.Thus causing frustration among hardworking and capable employees at various levels.

  • Dependence on Government

For making any big decision these PSU's are totally dependent of Government and it is difficult to make independent decision without interference. 

Public sector Units are very crucial for a nation like India to maintain the stability of the economy and to deal with emergency situations like natural disaster ,recession and war like situations. The only thing what is required is restructuring of PSU's in line with the private organisations and long term vision .

Saturday, February 2, 2019

JTO recruitment by BSNL for SC,ST and OBC


Why innovation is new fuel for prosparity of Indian economy

BSNL is the only PSU recruiting large number of Engineering Graduates .Eligible candidates were eagerly waiting for notification of JTO recruitment by BSNL .The wait is over now but only for the candidates belonging to SC,ST and OBC category. 

As per notification of  BSNL, Registration process for the candidature of Junior Telecom Officer (Civil & Electrical) [ JTO(Civil) & JTO(Elect.)] under SRD for SC, ST & OBC Candidates in BSNL will start with effect from 11th February 2019 to 12th March 2019 through online BSNL portal i.e.

Detail Notification

Selection procedure and Other Details

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. (BSNL) will recruit about 198 numbers of Graduate Engineers to the Post of JTO (Civil) & JTO (Electrical) under SRD for SC, ST & OBC from open market/external candidates through GATE SCORE-2019 in respective Branch

The willing candidates shall be permitted to apply only for one Circle in which he/she desires to serve, consequent upon his/her selection. Choice of Circle once exercised shall be final and under no Circumstances, it shall be changed. The Details of Telecom Circles along with Vacancy details is at Annexure-A. The circle wise merit list will be prepared based on the GATE Score-2019 and available vacancy of the circle. No claim of appointment by any qualified candidate, beyond the circle wise merit list shall be entertained. 

Selection Criterion

The mode of selection is through GATE SCORE-2019 which has to be conducted by IIT Madras, Chennai in the month of February 2019. 

All the willing candidates must have a GATE Registration ID (13 digits) for applying for DR-JTO(Civil) & DRJTO(Electrical) online Registration

Scale of Pay

JTO(Civil) & JTO(Electrical) will be appointed in the IDA pay scale Executive[E-1A] of Rs.16,400/- – Rs.40,500/- as per 2nd PRC with annual increment @ 3% of basic pay plus IDA, HRA, Perks, Medical Benefits, etc. admissible as per BSNL Company rules. 2. Selection for a 

 Educational Qualifications

 Applicant must possess the educational qualifications: BE/BTech. or equivalent in Civil Engineering for JTO(Civil) & in Electrical Engineering for JTO(Electrical) from a recognized Institution/University AND are required to appear in GATE exam 2019, opting one paper from selected two disciplines of GATE paper codes i.e. Electrical(EE) & Civil(CE) (details are available at 

Application Fees

Online application will start from 11-2-2019 .The prescribed examination fee of Rs.1000/- (Rupees One Thousand only) for OBC candidates and of Rs.500/- (Rupees Five Hundred only) for SC/ST candidates shall be paid through online mode i.e. Internet Banking, Credit Card, Debit Card only.

Saturday, January 19, 2019

BSNL high speed FTTH Bharat Fiber(Internet) launched to take on JIO Giga Fiber

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited ,state owned Government company lanched its high speed Fiber to Home services on 19-1-2019 with daily high speed data limits of 35 GB .

Internship opportunity in Bharat Broadband  Network Limited (BBNL)

Bharat fiber offers data with price as low as 1.1 Rs per GB. RJIO is working aggresively in its JIO Giga fiber service. After disruption in telecom services next target of RJIO is fiber broadband and Enterprise business. Till date these services are offered in selected cities by RJIO but soon ,this service will be launched in 1400 cities across India. 

Artificial Intelligence course designed by IIT Kharagpur
To take a lead BSNL introduced High Speed FTTH services in the cities where FTTH service is vailable. BSNl offers FTTH service in nearly 100 cities across India .You can check if BSNL FTTH service is available in your city on BSNL website or click here .

BSNL is Torch Bearer of Digital India

BSNL is taking Digital India initiative forward by active participation in NOFN and Bhratnet project connecting 250000 Gram Panchayats of India.
These fiber connection provide at Gram panchayat will be look after by BSNL afer completion of Bharatnet project.

Other Services by BSNL

BSNL offers 2G , 3G and broadband services
across the nation. BSNL  started 4G service
in few places recently.BSNL also offers wi-fi hot-spot service in rual areas. BSNL also offering internet telephony by WINGS app at very affordable prices. WINGS is VOIP service which can be used for voice and video calling using Internet 

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Google Cloud services free and paid services


Cloud Computing is sharing of computer infrastructure or database  and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet. In layman terms cloud computing can be understood as using different computers connected via internet to store and process any data in place of single data servers.


Google cloud Platform , is a collection of cloud computing services that runs on the same infrastructure that Google uses internally for its user products, such as You Tube and Google search. Along with a set of management tools, it also provides a series of  cloud services including computing, data analytics, data storage, and Machine learning . 

Artificial Intelligence and future with Artificial Intelligence

Google Cloud Platform provides Infrastructure as a service, Platform as a service and serverless computing environments.
Google lists over 90 products under the Google Cloud brand. Some of the key services are listed below.


Computing services

·        App Engine – 
Platform as a Service to deploy Java, PHP, Node.js, Python, C#, .Net, Rubyand Go applications.
·        Compute Engine - Infrastructure as a Service to run Microsoft Windows and Linux virtual machines.
·        Kubernetes Engine - Containers as a Service based on Kubernetes.
·        Cloud Functions - Functions as a Service to run event-driven code written in Node.js or Python.

Storage & Databases

·        Cloud Storage- Storage with integrated edge caching to store unstructured data.
·        Cloud SQL - Database as a Service based on MySQL and PostgreSQL.
·        Cloud BigTable -  Managed NoSQL database service.

·        Cloud Datastore - NoSQL database for web and mobile applications.
·        Persistent Disk -  Block Storage for Compute Engine virtual machines.
·        Cloud Memory Store - Managed in-memory data store based on Redis.


. Virtual Private Cloud for managing the software defined network of cloud resources.

·        Cloud Load Balancing
·        Cloud Armor.
·        Cloud CDN - Content Delivery Network based on Google's globally distributed edge points of presence. As of June 2018, the service is in Beta.
·        Cloud Interconnect - Service to connect a data center with Google Cloud Platform
·        Cloud DNS - Managed, authoritative DNS service.
·        Network Service Tiers - Option to choose Premium vs Standard network tier for higher performing network.


Cloud Artificial Intelligence

·        Cloud AutoML - Service to train and deploy custom machine learning models.
·        Cloud TPU - Accelerators used by Google to train machine learning models.
·        Cloud Machine Learning Engine
·       Dialog flow Enterprise -  Development environment based on Google's machine learning for building conversational interfaces.
·     Cloud Speech-to-Text - Speech to text conversion service based on machine learning.
·     Cloud Text-to-Speech - Text to speech conversion service based on machine learning.
·        Cloud Translation API - Service to dynamically translate between thousands of available language pairs
·        Cloud Vision API
·      Cloud Video Intelligence - Video analysis service based on machine learning

Not only above but Google cloud provides number of other services like Management tools ,Identity & Security, IoT , API Platform, etc.


Above services are mainly focused for the businesses which requires cloud services for storage, processing, and networking .But if you are an Individual student, professional, teacher etc. still Google cloud can help you. Google offers various online professional courses from renowned universities like university of Penysylvania .These certified courses are available in computer science ,application development, web development etc. based on your requirement.

For Students

Students can get courses in management ,computers science and other streams as per choice .The period of such courses is six months.

For Teachers and Professionals

Google cloud offers special discounts for University teachers, professionals who wants to enhance their skills by pursuing online courses.


If you want paid services from Google cloud you can sign up on Google cloud with your credit card or bank details .You don’t need to pay anything in advance .Once registered your Google cloud account will be credited with 300$ .You can use this amount for your purchase of products on Google cloud for next 12 months.

If you don’t want to give your bank details and credit card details before checking course, you can login for free .Once you Sign up on Google cloud , 7 Days free trail is given to you .After 7 days if you want to continue further you will require to pay for the services you avail.


Google provides 10 GB of storage on Google drive to every Gmail Id free of cost If you want to use more space you need to pay Google for that. Google charges nearly 10 $ per month for one terabyte of space.

Source:Technical info from Wikipedia.







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